Enough to keep them alive: Indian welfare in Canada, 1873-1965

"Far from reflecting humanitarian concern or enlightened political thinking, Indian welfare policy in Canada was formulated and applied deliberately to oppress and marginalize First Nations peoples and to foster their assimilation into the dominant society. 'Enough to Keep Them Alive' explores the development and administration of social assistance policies targeting First Nations peoples in Canada from Confederation to the 1960s, demonstrating a continuity with earlier practices that originated with pre-Confederation fur-trading companies." "Extensive archival evidence from the Indian Affairs record group at the National Archives of Canada is supplemented for the post-Second World War era by interviews with some of the key federal players. More than just a historical narrative, the book presents a critical analysis with a clear theoretical focus drawing on colonial and post-colonial theory, social theory, and critiques of liberalism and liberal democracy."

Shewell, Hugh
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Shewell, Hugh. 'Enough to keep them alive': Indian welfare in Canada, 1873-1965. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.