'Men of Their Own Blood’: Metis Intermediaries and the Numbered Treaties

From the Author's Abstract: "An examination of primary documents from the transfer of 1870 onward demonstrates that certain Metis interpreters present at Treaties 1 through 7 were more than mere translators. Well-versed in Aboriginal languages and cultural traditions, Metis people often acted as intermediates between the two parties. In drawing upon Metis diplomatic skills and relationships with First Nations, it is clear that officials in the North West recognized the necessity of personal diplomacy and gift-giving for establishing relations with First Nations in advance of settlement and treaties. This article demonstrates that bi-cultural mediators using traditional Indigenous protocols were critical in preventing violent encounters between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples. Their participation ensured that westward expansion proceeded as originally envisioned—peacefully and without undue expense." Pg 67.

Stevenson, Allyson
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Stevenson, Allyson. “‘Men of Their Own Blood’: Metis Intermediaries and the Numbered Treaties.” Native Studies Review 18, no. 1 (July 2009): 67–90.