journal article

Colonial Trauma: Complex, continuous, collective, cumulative and compounding effects on the health of Indigenous peoples in Canada and beyond

Author Provided Abstract, Page 75:

"Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of both mental and physical illness relative to Settler populations. A substantial body of research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health.

Everything Promised had been Included in the Writing: Indian Reserve Farming and the Spirit and Intent of Treaty Six Reconsidered

Excerpt from Introduction, Page 25:

"In the mid-1880s, the Department of Indian Affairs launched an investigation into claims by Indian signatories to Treaty Six that the government was not honoring its treaty commitments. Because its own records were flawed, the department instructed its employees to gather Indian recollections and oral testimonies and relied on this information when it concluded that some treaty obligations did remain unfilled.

Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942-1952

 Author's Abstract, Page 145:

"Between 1942 and 1952, some of Canada’s leading nutrition experts, in cooperation with various federal departments, conducted an unprecedented series of nutritional studies of Aboriginal communities and residential schools. The most ambitious and perhaps best known of these was the 1947–1948 James Bay Survey of the Attawapiskat and Rupert’s House Cree First Nations.

“Human Wreckage from Foreign Lands”: A Study of the Ethnic Victims of the Alberta Sterilization Act

Excerpt from Keith's Article, Page 81:

"Between 1928 and 1972, the Alberta Eugenics Board ordered an estimated 2,822 people sterilized under the Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act.1 The government-appointed Eugenics Board had labelled these people as ‘feeble-minded,’ or ‘mentally-defective,’ and decided that they were unfit to have children.

Second-rate Victims: The Forced Sterilization of Indigenous Peoples in the USA and Canada

From the Author's Abstract, Page 161:

"This essay explores a particular aspect of the twentieth-century history of Indigenous peoples. The forced sterilization campaign that targeted Indian women in twentieth-century North America and its links to eugenic ideologies remain understudied. While the US and Canadian governments funded these campaigns, according to available estimates, tens of thousands of Indigenous women were compulsorily sterilized.

The Influence of Betterment Discourses on Canadian Aboriginal Peoples in the Late Nineteenth and early twentieth Centuries

Author's Abstract, Page 444:

"Based on government archival sources, fieldwork and the historical perspectives, experiences and oral histories of Aboriginal peoples, this paper argues that late nineteenth and early twentieth century Indian policy, and more specifically the File Hills farm colony, was deeply influenced by betterment discourses.

Eugenics in the Community: Gendered Professions and Eugenic Sterilization in Alberta, 1928-1972

From the Author's Abstract, Page 143:

"Scholarship on Alberta’s Sexual Sterilization Act (1928-1972) has focused on the high-level politics behind the legislation, its main administrative body, the Eugenics Board, and its legal legacy, overlooking the largely female-dominated professions that were responsible for operating the program outside of the provincial mental health institutions. This paper investigates the relationship between eugenics and the professions of teaching, public health nursing, and social work.

Population Control in the ‘‘Global North’’?: Canada’s Response to Indigenous Reproductive Rights and Neo-Eugenics

Author's Abstract, Page 481:

"An historical analysis of reproductive politics in the Canadian North during the 1970s necessitates a careful reading of the local circumstances regarding feminism, sovereignty, language, colonialism, and access to health services, which differed regionally and culturally. These features were conditioned, however, by international discussions on family planning that fixated on the twinned concepts of unchecked population growth and poverty.

Sterilizing the ‘Feeble-Minded:' Eugenics in Alberta, Canada, 1929–1972

Author's Abstract, Page 358:

"Between 1929 and 1972, the Alberta Eugenics Board recommended that 4739 residents of the province be sterilized. However, only 60% of these individuals, 2834 in total, were ultimately sterilized since the legislation under which the Eugenics Board operated required patient consent to be obtained unless the individual recommended for sterilization was diagnosed as “mentally defective.” Women, teenagers and young adults, and Aboriginals were particularly targeted by the Alberta Eugenics Board.

Leilani Muir versus the Philosopher King: Eugenics on trial in Alberta

From the Author's Abstract, Page 185:

"The Province of Alberta in Canada was the only jurisdiction in the British Empire where a eugenic sterilization law was passed (in 1928) and vigorously implemented. The pace of sterilization orders accelerated during the Nazi era and remained high after World War II, terminating only in 1972 when the Sexual Sterilization Act was repealed. The Alberta Eugenics Board operated away from public and legislative scrutiny, and many things done in the name of eugenics were clearly illegal.