Rupert's Land Transfer

Since 1670 the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) had held an exclusive trade monopoly over all lands where water drained into Hudson Bay. In 1870 the Dominion of Canada gained control over this vast territory (and consecutively renamed it the North-West Territories) for the price of 300,000 Pounds.

Date Explanation
The deed of transfer was signed in November 1869; however, due to the Red River Resistance the transfer did not become effective until July 1870.

Morton, Arthur S. "Copy of draft surrender of Rupert's Land to the Queen, to be transferred for union with the Dominion of Canada." Enclosure in Earl Granville's despatches, no. 109. 12 June 1869. Morton, Arthur S. "Copy of the Order-in-Council dated 23 June 1870, at Windsor Court, authorizing the transfer of Rupert's Land and the North West Territories by the Hudson's Bay Company to the Queen to be united with the Dominion of Canada." 23 June 1870.

The Rupert's Land Transfer provided Canada with the right under British law to extract resources from the region, while also leading to a promotion of settlement and agricultural development of fertile areas. This initiated significant transformation in the West and it also incited anger amongst many Metis and First Nations peoples who were not consulted in the sale or transfer of their territories. While the transfer and desire to promote settlement in the North-West Territories led towards the negotiation of treaties with the region's First Nations inhabitants, the land rights of the Metis were ignored, eventually resulting in the resistances of 1870 and 1885.
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