Robert Goodvoice is from Round Plain Reserve near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. In this interview (part nine), Goodvoice describes the movement of the Dakota to Canada and their experience acquiring land that was assigned by government. The Dakota who sought refuge from the American Government during the Numbered Treaty Era, were excluded from the Treaty making process because they were considered "American Indians." The traditional territory of the Dakota predated colonization, and the North American 49th Parallel (Canadian-American border) overlapped this territory. The relegation of Indigenous peoples as either 'Canadian' or 'American' has caused incredible challenges for First Nations with community and territory on either side of the border.
Goodvoice states the government agreed to the provision of Reserve land, but no healthcare or education would be provided for Non-Treaty Indians. Goodvoice describes the difficulty of finding work on reserves, which was exacerbated by the pass system. With the pass system in place, First Nations who lived on the Reserve were prohibited from finding work outside of it, and if they were absent from the reserve for around ten days, the police would be notified. The pass system was an informal policy which, originally hard to enforce, became more prevalent in controlling the movements and communities of Indigenous peoples.
Interview with Robert Goodvoice 9. Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1979. Interview with Robert Goodvoice conducted by Helga Reydon on September 8 & 23, 1979.