Primary source interviews indicate that Metis individuals who volunteered for the war effort were exposed to trauma-inducing events both directly and vicariously. Because alcohol was frequently used and abused as a coping mechanism by army personnel, addictions were often developed.
Alcohol addictions, in addition to a lack of recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder and symptomatology, as well as culturally-sensitive treatment, often created difficulties in interpersonal relationships and daily functioning. For example, PTSD or post-traumatic symptoms, combined with addictions, often impede personal well-being and the ability to successfully parent. Unresolved trauma can result in generational transmission of dysfunctional or unhelpful behavioural coping mechanisms.