In 1871 a peace treaty brought an end to the long running war between the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the Nehiyaw (Cree). This was also known as the Assiniboine alliance. The roots of this conflict can be traced back to the height of the fur trade and competition over the dwindling bison herds. In the fall of 1870 the Niitsitapi won a crucial victory over 600-800 Cree, Assiniboine, and Saulteaux warriors in a battle at Belly River (near present day Lethbridge, AB). Following the Niitsitapi victory both sides acknowledged the futility of inter-aboriginal warfare, especially with the increasingly chaotic 'Whoop-Up' trade moving northward from America, and agreed to a peace treaty to end hostilities.
The peace treaty ended warfare between the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the Nehiyaw (Cree).