Saskatchewan - South East

CCF Creates Métis Colonies


During the 1940s, the CCF created Métis ‘colonies’ at Crooked Lake, Lestock, Crescent Lake, BalJennie, Willow Bunch, Duck Lake, Glen Mary, Green Lake, and Lebret of which contained about 2500 Métis residents. These colonies were introduced by Tommy Douglas’ CCF government as a colonization project that they felt would ‘deal’ with socioeconomic struggles Métis, particularly Métis in the southern part of the province, were facing as a result of westward expansion and land loss. Colonies were intended to integrate and assimilate Métis peoples into western social and economic ideals that embraced the free market and prepared them for settler society. Schools established in Métis colonies were used to prepare Métis children for the ‘workforce,’ instill a community identity that based itself upon the cultural collective (White society), while simultaneously undermining cultural Métis knowledge and identities.



Colonies, however, provided very little to ebb the widespread poverty that many Métis at this time experienced, as land, livestock, and resources obtained in the ‘colonies’ were not owned by any Métis. CCF officials rationalized this by believing that the Métis were incapable of caring for themselves or their land. This belief was firstly, unfounded, and second, predicated on years of land dispossession and colonial interference across the prairies that robbed Métis from wealth and resources they formerly had access to. In doing this, the CCF continued to perpetuate the same behaviour as federal agents wherein Métis peoples were disadvantaged and assumed to be ‘incapable.’ 

Barron writes,

“Colonies, as a rehabilitation scheme for the Métis, were entirely in keeping with this thinking because they were seen as a way of making the Métis competitive in mainstream society. By removing the Métis from the road allowances and grouping them into distinct settlements, the government would be able to manipulate the environment to maximize local community development. The understanding was that, if the Métis could not integrate individually, they might do so collectively through the creation of economically viable, self-sustaining communities. Through proper training, self-actualization, and cooperation, they would evolve as a community of farmers contributing to the regional agrarian economy.”


Barron, F.L., Walking in Indian Moccasins: the native policies of Tommy Douglas and the CCF, 40-50.





Fond du Lac Dene Nation

Historical and Alternate Community Names

Maurice, Maurice Piché

Reserves, Settlements, and Villages

Fond Du Lac Reserve No. 227, Fond Du Lac 228, Fond Du Lac 229, Fond Du Lac Indian Reserve No 231, Fond Du Lac Indian Reserve No. 232, Fond Du Lac Indian Reserve No. 233

Clearwater River Dene

Reserves, Settlements, and Villages

Clearwater River Dene 222, Clearwater River Dene Band 221, Clearwater River Dene Band 223, La Loche Indian Settlement

 General Information

Clearwater River Dene is a Denesųłiné (Dene) First Nation located to the north-west of Meadow Lake, Saskatchewan. They are signatories to Treaty 8, which the group signed in 1899. As of 2022, Clearwater River Dene has a registered population of 2,957.

Black Lake

Historical and Alternate Community Names

Maurice, Maurice Piché, Stony Rapids

Reserves, Settlements, and Villages

Chicken Indian Reserve No. 224, Chicken Indian Reserve No. 225, Chicken Indian Reserve No. 226