Blakeney Government Implements the Saskatchewan Formula

The Blakeney government implemented the Saskatchewan formula, which proposed that land entitlements would be based on Indigenous band populations from December 31, 1976 rather than the time that treaties were signed. Action was delayed as Ottawa and Regina fought about the land and money required. A handful of Treaty Land Entitlement claims eventually went forward, including that of the Lucky Man band which received a reserve in the Battleford area 110 years after it had entered treaty (1879).

Creation of the North-West Mounted Police

The North-West Mounted Police was established in 1873 by the government of John A. MacDonald. The Cypress Hills massacre as well as the increasing number of conflicts on the U.S border due to alcohol smuggling are often cited as the main reasons the MacDonald government passed the bill creating the new military-style police force. However, most historians agree that the primary reason for establishing the force was to control First Nations and Métis populations, as the government sought to populate the West with settlers.

Red Earth and Shoal Lake Cree Nation Indian Claims Commission

In May 1996, the Shoal Lake Cree Nation and the Red Earth Cree Nation jointly submitted a specific claim to the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, alleging that Canada had breached the terms of Treaty 5 and the 1876 Adhesion by not providing farming lands to the Red Earth and Shoal Lake Cree Nations. Following a near 9 year silence on behalf of the Federal Goverment, the First Nations requested that the Indian Claims Commission (ICC) investigate their claim, despite it not being formally rejected by the Federal Government.

Nekaneet Treaty Land Entitlement Settlement Agreement

In February 1987, the Nekaneet First Nation submitted a specific claim to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development seeking compensation under Treaty 4 for outstanding provisions of agricultural benefits, programs and services, annual payments to band members and damages for failure to provide a reserve at the time of the treaty's signing in 1874. On October 23, 1998, the federal government offered to accept Nekaneet's claim for negotiation of a settlement.

Indian Agent Peter J. William's Report on File Hills Agency and Battleford Agency

Indian Agents were required to make a yearly report on the reserves in their respective agencies. In 1886, Agent Williams reported that there had been 11 deaths and 2 births in Standing Buffalo band, 18 deaths and 5 births in Pasquah band, 5 deaths and 4 births in Muscowpetung band, and 26 deaths and 7 births on Piapot.

Complaints about the Quality of Tobacco and Other Goods Distributed by the Government

Indigenous people complained of the quality of tobacco, ammunition, and farming implements distributed to them. These were items that had been promised in treaty negotiations, and had been included in the written documents. The tobacco was of such bad quality that in some cases Aboriginal people simply threw it away. The shot distributed the previous year was all No. 5-8 shot, but should have been No. 2 shot instead. The wooden pitchforks that were distributed were of poor quality, and it was recommended that steel ones should be distributed instead, which would make work more efficient.

War of 1812

As a symbol of the treaty made between the Dakota people and the British in which they would fight together in the War of 1812, Robert Dixon presented the Dakota with seven King George III medals. They were also given a small cannon, which was a symbol of the time the two groups had fought together. Though the battle was mainly fought in the western Great Lakes, Niagara, and St. Lawrence regions, communities in Saskatchewan have ancestry that traces back to this battle. These communities are Standing Buffalo Dakota, Wahpeton Dakota, and Whitecap Dakota.

Minnesota Massacre and Arrival of Dakota in Canada

In 1851, a treaty was signed between the Dakota and the American government that stipulated that they would be provided for during the following fifty years. The Treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota, as they were named, also forced the Dakota to cede all remaining lands in Minnesota and a small part of South Dakota. Historical accounts suggest the american government failed to deliver promised food, goods and payment for land transfer to the Dakota bands in 1862, thus breaching treaty promises.